The Parthians make no use of a shield

overview for Celebreth

canada goose clearance sale It was a source how significant it is is a bit questionable. The canada goose black friday sale loot was apportioned by rank so while it certainly was a way for a common soldier to get a fair bit wealthier (specifically the later you get in the Republic), it all depended on exactly how successful their general was. Some generals for example, some of the ones involved in the Macedonian Wars or certain young generals trying to punch above their weight class in Spain coughPompeycough were less than successful, and therefore their troops made far less money than, say the men under Sulla in his war against Mithridates (who revolted over the hint that they might not be able to go loot the East) or those goose outlet canada who looted Syracuse. But those are cherry picking (and for most of the examples, late) suffice it to say that for the majority of the pre Marian soldiers, loot was a thing that could happen, but ought not be considered a potential source of significant personal wealth. canada goose clearance sale

uk canada goose I sorry for taking so long to answer this one! I go ahead and see if I can unravel this knot for you, but first I have to explain what our understanding of the pre Marian Roman army (a delightfully homogeneous term that, while all we have, necessarily complicates the subject). uk canada goose

Our only primary source for understanding the army at this stage is Polybius a Greek scholar who tagged along with Scipio Aemelianus after he was taken by Rome as a hostage. He wrote essentially a treatise of the Roman “system” as it were the government, some of the history, canada goose outlet online and the military included to explain to Greeks why the Romans were so superior (as he saw it). So while he a fascinating and extremely valuable source, he also includes super helpful lines such as explaining that Roman cavalry were outfitted in the “Greek fashion,” without explaining any more what that means. So we still not sure about Roman cavalry. But let get into your actual question a little bit more.

canada goose coats The class system (As per Livy and Dionysus of Halicarnassus) was heavily integrated into the Roman voting system these were a militaristic people, and it was their way of life. So those who served in the Roman military got a heavily disproportionate voice in the political system. All Roman citizens were divided into different classes based on their property, as per this helpful chart that I borrowing from Goldsworthy The Complete Roman Army, p25: canada goose coats

canada goose uk outlet Okay, so the first thing you note is that there very little actual difference in the first 3 4 classes (not all centuries are equal here Class I has more centuries and fewer people than Class V, for example. As I said disproportionate voting power). All of these men were your Roman line infantry your canada goose outlet reviews hastati, principes, and triarii. Class IIII is a squishy place, and they could probably be classified as either skirmishers or line infantry, depending on need. The true difference (other than equipment, positioning, etc) in the different classes of line infantry was age and experience. The hastati (and the velites to some degree) were young, impetuous men who were eager to prove themselves, but who probably hadn actually seen much combat yet. The principes were men in the prime of their life who, having lived to the prime of their life in a militia system permanently at war, had most certainly seen combat to some degree, and the triarii were anyone past that (we have a record of an old veteran in his 60s who just kept serving because he damn well wanted to). canada goose uk outlet

Canada Goose Jackets Another thing to note in the Republic, the pay was exceptionally minimal for military service it essentially covered your canada goose outlet uk food and maybe canada goose jacket outlet clothes while you were on campaign. If someone had wealth, it was because of their family wealth, not because of a lifetime of military service. Canada Goose Jackets

buy canada goose jacket cheap So, now that I done the explaining necessary! To what degree would they fraternize with each other? Well, it wouldn be weird. A boy might want to go see his father, especially the night before a fight. The people with whom a soldier would be closest to, however, would be the members of his contubernium his tent mates. This was the smallest division of the Roman military, and it what everything was essentially broken down to pay, rations, supplies, etc. Everyone in that tent group took care of everyone else in it so they would be the people you be fraternizing, gaming, and drinking with more often than not. How much the poor, say Class V and below (not shown on the above chart, but those who were so poor that they weren required to serve), actually interacted with, say, the cavalry (not shown on the above chart they above Class I) is tough to say, simply because of the paucity of our sources. buy canada goose jacket cheap

Canada Goose Online Hope that answers the question, and I super sorry about taking so long with it! If anything else came up in your reading, please feel free to poke me and I get to it asap 🙂 Canada Goose Online

Canada Goose Coats On Sale A few more additions to what /u/tiako noted! The Muzyris papyrus is one that most people outside the field of Classics are reasonably unfamiliar with. On the front, it details the specifics of the loan taken canada goose outlet nyc out to finance this voyage, while on the back, it details the cargo. Sadly, it fragmentary. So we only have about 3/4 of the cargo list. That 3/4, however, is impressive enough, amounting to a whopping 7 million sesterces by weight, that about 7000 kg of silver. And that for one ship! While ships were obviously of varying sizes, once the Roman Empire secured control of Egypt, it wasn long before over 100 ships were making the annual trip.1 Some bare details about these ships are coming through some sites in the Indian Ocean, too a common assumption is official canada goose outlet that they were reasonably similar to Roman grain barges in size and construction. Canada Goose Coats On Sale

canada goose coats on sale Aha! This is where I get to come in to argue otherwise. Mithridates was the king of Pontus, a relatively small, extremely wealthy state on the Black Sea. One of his first (most infamous) acts against the Romans was to incite revolt throughout Greece. On one co ordinated night, he orchestrated a mass murder of Romans in the region, after which he promptly styled himself as a Hellenistic king, attempting to play both the Persian and the Greek cards. For example, here one of the coins he canada goose outlet sale minted. Note the text is in Greek ( King of Lysimachus), which was the lingua franca of the area at that time. Here another one that very much emphasizes his attempt to Hellenisticize himself. Note the little dots on the text joints, a la something you might see from a teenage girl making a high school poster? That one of the defining hallmarks of Hellenistic coinage right there 🙂 canada goose coats on sale

canada goose black friday sale Aaah, the Roman First Century. Truly a time of glorious entropy. The thing is, it wasn just chaos for the Romans, who were, despite their disorder, still one of the most organized states in their area at the time. I discuss Parthia here, as it the closest approximation to hostile Persians canada goose outlet store that the Romans really dealt with in this period (after the Seleucids had been essentially crushed in the Second Century). Wikipedia has a super handy map. The hostilities that most people are familiar with here is the brutal devastation of Crassus and his legions, an event which threw the power scales amok in Rome. It would seem that Parthia ought to have a perfect opportunity here to attack or invade Rome, so why didn they? canada goose black friday sale

Well, the answer mostly revolves around what I started with. The Parthians, despite being able to usher in some pretty decisive defeats of Roman forces (see Marcus Antonius failed invasion for extra context), were pretty disorganized in comparison. I give you Cassius Dio description of them (40.14 15, using this translation) here:

Canada Goose online These people dwell beyond the Tigris, for the most part in forts and garrisons, but also in afew cities, among them Ctesiphon, in which they have a royal residence. Their race was in existence among the ancient barbariansand they had this same name even under the Persian kingdom; but at that time they inhabited only a small portion of the country and had acquired no dominion beyond their own borders. But when the Persian rule had been overthrown and that of the Macedonians was at its height, and when the successors of Alexander had quarrelled with one another, cutting off separate portions for themselves and setting up individual monarchies, the Parthians then first attained prominence under a certain Arsaces, from whom their succeeding rulers received the title of Arsacidae. By good fortune they acquired all the neighbouring territory, occupied Mesopotamia by means canada goose outlet in usa of satrapies, and finally advanced to so great glory and canada goose outlet online uk power as to wage war even against the Romans at that time, canada goose outlet and ever afterward down to the present day to be considered a match for them. They are really formidable in warfare, but nevertheless they have a reputation greater than their achievements, because, in spite of their not having gained anything canada goose outlet store uk from the Romans, and having, besides, given up certain portions of their own domain, they have not yet been enslaved, but even to this day hold their own in the wars they wageagainst us, whenever they become involved in them. Canada Goose online

canada goose uk shop Now about their race and their country and their peculiar customs many have written, and Ihave no intention of describing them. canada goose outlet But Iwill describe their equipment of arms and their method of warfare; for the examination of these details properly concerns the present narrative, since it has come to a point where this knowledge is needed. The Parthians make no use of a shield, but their forces consist of mounted archers and pikesmen, mostly in full armour. Their infantry is small, made up of the weaker men; but even these are all archers. They practise from boyhood, and the climate and the land combine to aid both horsemanship and archery. The land, being for the most part level, is excellent for raising horses and very suitable for riding about on horse back; at any rate, even in war they lead about whole droves of horses, so that they can use different ones at different times, can ride up suddenly from a distance and also retire to a distance speedily;and the atmosphere there, which is very dry and does not contain the least moisture, keeps their bowstrings tense, except in the dead of winter. For that reason they make no campaigns anywhere during that season but the rest of the year they are almost invincible in their own country and in any that has similar characteristics. For by long experience they can endure the sun heat, which is very scorching, and they http://www.mycanadagoosejacket.org have discovered many remedies for the dearth of drinking water and the difficulty of securing it, so that for this reason also they can easily repel the invaders of their land. Outside of this district beyond the Euphrates they have once or twice gained some success in pitched battles and in sudden incursions, but they cannot wage an offensive war with any nation continuously and without pause, both because they encounter an entirely different condition of land and sky canada goose outlet parka and because they do not lay in supplies of food or pay. Such is the Parthian state. canada goose uk shop

canada goose factory sale I bolded that last bit for some emphasis, in case the wall of text is too long. He continues with the aftermath of Cannae (40.28 29): canada goose factory sale

canada goose uk black friday For the barbarians would not keep away from it, but made another campaign with a larger band, nominally under the leadership of Pacorus, the son of Orodes, though actually under that of Osaces, since the other was just a child. They came as far as Antioch, subduing the whole country before them. 4And they had hopes also of subjugating what remained, since the Romans were not at hand with a force fit to cope with them, and the districts were fretting under Roman rule and were ready to turn to the invaders, as to neighbours and people of kindred ways. But when they failed to take Antioch, since Cassius effectively repulsed them and they were unable to carry on a siege, they turned to Antigonea. And since the neighbourhood of this city was overgrown with timber, and they did not dare, nay were not even able to penetrate this with cavalry, they formed a plan to cut down the trees and lay bare the whole place, so that they might approach the town canada goose outlet toronto factory with confidence and safety. But finding themselves unable to do this, because the task was a great one and their time was spent in vain, while Cassius harassed those of them who scattered abroad, they retired with the intention of proceeding against some other place. 3Meanwhile Cassius set an ambush on the road along which they were to depart, and confronting them there with afew men, he induced them to pursue, and then surrounding them, killed anumber, including Osaces. Upon the latter death Pacorus abandoned all Syria and never invaded it again. canada goose uk black friday

uk canada goose outlet After this, the Parthian Empire was generally beset by infighting (often spurred on by the Romans, who were perfectly happy to wage proxy wars) as well as fighting off migrating tribes. On top of all that, thanks to his success at Cannae, Orodes, king of Parthia, killed off the victorious general (Surena) in the fear that Surena victory would threaten Orodes position as king. Unfortunately, killing off your generals is one of the best ways to not have any good generals left. This on and off infighting, again, very much encouraged by the Romans, was the hallmark of Parthia existence, with Rome often sponsoring puppet kings and/or revolts. The Parthian Empire, while not being worth the invasion, was best kept as a border province as it was too weak to actually pose a real threat to the Roman Empire. uk canada goose outlet

canada goose clearance So what were they doing besides being chaotic? Well, often being employed for mercenary work in Rome civil wars, actually. The whole “enemy” thing gets a bit murky when money is involved. For example (Again from Cassius Dio forgive me for relying so heavily on him, but he one of the few sources we have that canada goose outlet canada discusses the Parthians in detail. Ventidius found he would not even risk a conflict with him and so thrust him forthwith out of that country and canada goose factory outlet pursued him into Syria, taking the lightest part of his army with him. He overtook him near the Taurus range and allowed him to proceed no farther, but they encamped there for several days canada goose outlet black friday and made no move, for Labienus was awaiting the Parthians and Ventidius his heavy armed troops. These reinforcements, however, arrived during the same days on both sides, and though Ventidius through fear of the barbarian cavalry remained on the high ground, where he was encamped,the Parthians, because of their numbers and canada goose outlet uk sale because they had been victorious canada goose outlet shop once before, despised their opponents and rode up to the hill at dawn, without even waiting canada goose outlet jackets to join forces withLabienus; and when nobody came out to meet them, they actually charged straight up the incline. When they were at length on the slope, the Romans rushed down upon them and easily hurled them down hill. Many of the Parthians were killed in hand to hand conflict, but still more caused disaster to one another in the retreat, as some had already turned to flight and others were still coming up; and the survivors fled, not to Labienus, but into Cilicia canada goose clearance.

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