But this year the Busara Centre for Behavioural Economics


Canada Goose sale Eva, a 19 year old student at Nairobi Aviation College, was sitting in her tiny room in shared quarters in Kitengela feeling broke, hungry, and desperate. She used the remaining 100 Kenyan shillings she had in her wallet and took a bus to the city centre, where she looked canada goose outlet shop for the first man who would pay to have sex with her. After 10 minutes in a dingy alley, Eva went back to canada goose jacket outlet Kitengela with 1,000 Kenyan shillings to feed herself for the rest of the month. Canada Goose sale

Canada Goose Parka Six years ago, when she was at university, Shiro met a married man nearly 40 years her senior. At first, she received just groceries. Then it was trips to the salon. Two years into their relationship, the man moved her into a new apartment because he wanted her to be more comfortable. Another two years down the line, he gave Shiro a plot of land in Nyeri county as a show of commitment. In goose outlet canada exchange, he gets to sleep with Shiro whenever he feels like it. Canada Goose Parka

Eva’s experience is transactional sex in its most unvarnished form a hurried one off encounter, driven by desperation. Shiro’s story illustrates an altogether more complex phenomenon the canada goose outlet toronto factory exchange of youth and beauty for long term financial gain, motivated not by hunger but by aspiration, glamorised by social media stars, and often wrapped in the trappings of a relationship.

uk canada goose Older men have always used gifts, status, and influence to buy access to young women. The sugar daddy has probably been around, in every society, for as long as the prostitute. So canada goose outlet jackets you might ask: “Why even have a canada goose outlet online uk conversation about transactional sex in Africa?” uk canada goose

buy canada goose jacket The answer is that in Kenya, and in some other African countries, “sugar” relationships seem to have canada goose outlet reviews become both more common and more visible: what once was hidden is now out in the open on campuses, in bars, and all over Instagram. buy canada goose jacket

canada goose coats You only have to visit the student districts of Nairobi, one recent graduate told the BBC, to see how pervasive the sponsor culture has become. “On a Friday night just go sit outside Box House [student hostel] and the see what kind of cars drive by drivers of ministers, and politicians sent to pick up young girls,” says Silas Nyanchwani, canada goose outlet uk sale who studied at the University of Nairobi. canada goose coats

Until recently there was no data canada goose outlet nyc to indicate how many young Kenyan women are involved in sugar relationships. But this year the Busara Centre for Behavioural Economics conducted a study for BBC Africa in which they questioned 252 canada goose outlet uk female university students between the ages of 18 and 24. They found that approximately 20% of the young women who participated in the research has or has had a “sponsor.”

canada goose coats on sale The sample size was small and the study was not fully randomised, so the results only give an indication of the possible numbers, they cannot be taken as definitive. Also, only a small percentage openly admitted to having a sugar daddy; the researchers were able to infer that a number were hiding the truth from answers they gave to other questions, using a technique called list randomisation. But interestingly, when talking about others, not about themselves, the young women estimated on average that 24% of their peers had engaged in a transactional sexual relationship with an older man a figure very close to that reached by the researchers. canada goose coats on sale

canada goose Among them are the stars of the reality TV show Nairobi Diaries, Kenya’s own blend of Keeping up with the Kardashians and The Real Housewives of Atlanta. The show has launched several socialites out of Nairobi’s slums and on to yachts off the coast of Malibu or the Mediterranean. canada goose

Canada Goose Jackets “Nairobi Diaries is like the Kardashians playing out [on screen] in real time. If I look hot, I look good, there has got be some rich guy who will pay good money to possess me,” says Oyunga Pala, Nairobi columnist and social commentator. Canada Goose Jackets

uk canada goose outlet Equally famous is model and socialite Huddah Monroe, who also rose to fame on reality TV in her case Big Brother Africa, in 2013 and who now runs a well established line of cosmetics. “If you have to expose your body, make money out of it,” she was reported as saying, referring to the semi nude images that she shows off to her 1.3 million Instagram followers. uk canada goose outlet

In the past, some of Kenya’s socialites have styled canada goose outlet store themselves canada goose outlet sale as SlayQueens, and have been quite upfront about the financial benefits that have come from dating tycoons. Having made it to the top, though, they often begin to cultivate a different image presenting themselves as independent, self made businesswomen and encouraging Kenyan girls to work hard and stay in school.

The millions of fans scrolling through their Instagram posts, though, are not blind. The sudden emphasis on entrepreneurship does not hide the fact that these women used their sex appeal to create opportunities in the first place. And many quite understandably are attempting to apply this methodology to their own lives.

If one end of the sugar spectrum features young women with their sights set on a hot pink Range Rover, a luxury condo and first class tickets to Dubai, at the other are women angling for little more than some mobile phone credit and maybe a lunch at Java coffee house.

cheap Canada Goose But the gulf between them may not be http://www.mycanadagoosejacket.org so deep as it seems. cheap Canada Goose

“Should I leave all these Gucci Prada? Na which young girl no dey fear hunger?” sang the Ghanaian singer Ebony Reigns, encapsulating the mixture of canada goose outlet online social aspiration and economic anxiety that many young women feel. The desire not to go hungry and the desire to taste the good canada goose outlet life can easily run side by side. And the fortunes of a woman dependent on a sponsor can change in canada goose outlet new york city an instant either for better or worse.

canada goose store Grace, a 25 year old single mum canada goose black friday sale from northern Nairobi, has a regular sponsor, but is actively seeking a more lucrative relationship with a man who will invest in her career as a singer. canada goose store

She is poor by the standards of canada goose outlet canada middle class Kenyans, often living hand to mouth, dancing for cash in a nightclub, and struggling to put her daughter through school. But her determination to feed and educate her child coexists with a naked ambition to become rich and famous through modelling and canada goose outlet music.

“I need to be a star,” she says, citing not just Vera Sidika but also Beyonc. Is she driven canada goose outlet parka more by vanity or poverty, aspiration or desperation? The lines are blurred.

canada goose uk shop Both Grace and Jane have come of age in the last decade, bombarded since childhood with images of female status built on sex appeal. canada goose outlet in usa But according to Crystal Simeoni, an expert on gender and economic policy, Kenyan society encourages sugar relationships in other ways too. canada goose uk shop

canada goose uk black friday If women have become more willing to profit financially from their youth and beauty, she says, it’s partly because of Kenya’s gross economic inequalities, lack of social mobility, and widespread corruption. canada goose uk black friday

“The way things are constructed in this country makes it so much harder for a smaller person to make ends meet,” she argues. Hard work won’t get them anywhere. “They have to get a sponsor, rob a bank, or win a tender.”

Canada Goose Online The phenomenon isn’t confined to women. Canada Goose Online

George Paul Meiu, who studies transactional relationships between men of Kenya’s Samburu tribe and older European women, has described how their youth and good looks have become valuable commodities in Kenya’s beach resorts.

Thanks to a set of “African warrior” stereotypes and myths about tribal sexual prowess, the Samburu and others like them are particularly appealing to both local canada goose outlet black friday and foreign sugar mummies. Some Samburu villages, he says, claim they have been unable to defend themselves against cattle raids from neighbouring tribes because so many young men have migrated to the coast to become beach boys.

Canada Goose online “A beach boy is someone who gets up in the morning, smokes a joint, lies under a coconut tree waiting for bikini clad white woman passing on the beach and runs after them,” says artist Michael Soi. Canada Goose online

canada goose factory sale But as most of those dependent on sugar relationships are female, they have dominated the public debate. There are concerns about the morality of their lifestyle, but also about its consequences for their health. canada goose factory sale

Kerubo, a 27 canada goose outlet store uk year old from Kisii in Western Kenya, maintains that she has control of her relationship with her sugar daddy, Alfred. But when I ask her official canada goose outlet about safe sex, this illusion quickly evaporates.

Both Alfred and her other sponsor, James, prefer not to use condoms, she says. In fact she has had unprotected sex with multiple sugar daddies, who then have sex with other women, as well as with their wives, exposing all of these partners to the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

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