How is it that distant parts of the universe possess such

The Universe Archives

Canada Goose Outlet The Big Bang. The discovery that the Universe has been expanding for billions of years is one of the biggest revelations in the history of science. In a single moment, canada goose outlet store the entire canada goose outlet toronto factory Universe popped into existence, and has been expanding ever since. Canada Goose Outlet

uk canada goose outlet We know official canada goose outlet this because of multiple lines of evidence: the cosmic microwave background radiation, the ratio of elements in the Universe, etc. But the most compelling one is just the simple fact that everything is expanding away from everything else. Which means, that if you run the clock backwards, the Universe was once an extremely hot dense region uk canada goose outlet

Let’s go backwards in canada goose outlet uk time, billions of years. The closer you get to the Big Bang, the closer everything was, and the hotter it was. When you reach about 380,000 years after the Big Bang, the entire Universe was so hot canada goose outlet that all matter was ionized, with atomic nuclei and electrons buzzing around each other.

Canada Goose Jackets Keep going backwards, and the entire Universe was the temperature and density of a star, which fused together the primordial helium and other elements that we see to this day. Canada Goose Jackets

canada goose coats on sale Continue canada goose outlet new york city to the beginning of time, and there was a point where everything was so hot that atoms themselves couldn’t hold together, breaking into their constituent canada goose factory outlet protons and neutrons. Further back still and even atoms break apart into quarks. And before that, it’s just a big question mark. An infinitely dense Universe cosmologists called the singularity. canada goose coats on sale

When you look out into the Universe in all directions, you see the cosmic canada goose outlet jackets microwave background radiation. That’s that point when the Universe cooled down so that light could travel freely through space.

canada goose uk black friday And the temperature of this radiation is almost exactly the same in all directions that you look. There are tiny tiny variations, detectable only by the most sensitive instruments. canada goose uk black friday

Cosmic microwave background seen by Planck. Credit: ESA

canada goose clearance When two things are the same temperature, like a spoon in your coffee, it means that those two canada goose jacket outlet things have had an opportunity to interact. The coffee transferred heat to the spoon, and now their temperatures have equalized. canada goose clearance

canada goose clearance sale When we see this in opposite sides of the Universe, that means that canada goose outlet sale at some point, in the ancient past, canada goose outlet reviews those two regions were touching. That spot where the light left 13.8 billion years ago on your left, was once directly touching that spot on your right that also emitted its light 13.8 billion years ago. canada goose clearance sale

canada goose This is a great theory, but there’s a problem: The Universe never had time for those opposite regions to touch. For the Universe to have the uniform temperature we see today, canada goose outlet online uk it would have needed to spend enough time mixing together. But it didn’t have enough canada goose outlet nyc time, in fact, goose outlet canada the Universe didn’t have any time to exchange temperature. canada goose

canada goose black friday sale Imagine you dipped that spoon into the coffee and then pulled it out moments later before the heat could transfer, and yet the coffee and spoon are exactly the same temperature. What’s going on? canada goose black friday sale

Alan H. Guth. Credit: Betsy Devine (CC BY SA 3.0)

To address this problem, the cosmologist Alan Guth proposed the idea of cosmic inflation in 1980. That canada goose outlet parka moments after the Big canada goose outlet Bang, the entire Universe expanded dramatically.

And by “moments”, I mean that the inflationary period started when the Universe was only 10^ 36 seconds old, and ended when the Universe was 10^ 32 seconds old.

And by “expanded dramatically”, I mean that it got 10^26 times larger. canada goose outlet store uk That’s a 1 followed by 26 zeroes.

Canada Goose online Before inflation, the observable Universe was smaller than an atom. After inflation, it was about 0.88 millimeters. Today, those regions have been stretched 93 billion light years apart. Canada Goose online

This concept of inflation was further canada goose outlet black friday developed by cosmologists Andrei Linde, Paul Steinhardt, Andy Albrecht and others.

Canada Goose Online Inflation resolved some of the shortcomings of the Big Bang Theory. Canada Goose Online

cheap Canada Goose The first is known as the flatness problem. The most sensitive satellites we have today measure the Universe as flat. Not like a piece of paper flat, but flat in the sense that parallel lines will remain parallel forever as they travel through the Universe. Under the original Big Bang cosmology, you would expect the curvature of the Universe to grow with time. cheap Canada Goose

Canada Goose Parka The horizon problem in Big Bang cosmology. How is it that distant parts of the universe possess such similar physical properties? Credit: Addison Wesley. Canada Goose Parka

cheap canada goose uk The second is the horizon problem. And this is the problem I mentioned above, that two regions of the Universe shouldn’t have been able to see each other and interact long enough to be the same temperature. cheap canada goose uk

buy canada goose jacket The third is the monopole problem. According to the original Big Bang theory, there should be a vast number of heavy, stable “monopoles”, or a magnetic canada goose outlet canada particle with only a single pole. canada goose outlet in usa Inflation diluted the number of monopoles in the canada goose outlet uk sale Universe so don’t detect them today. buy canada goose jacket

Although the cosmic microwave background radiation appears mostly even across the sky, there could still be evidence of that inflationary period baked into it.

Canada Goose Coats On Sale In order to do this, astronomers have been focusing on searching for primordial gravitational waves. These are different from the gravitational waves generated through the collision of massive objects. Primordial gravitational waves are the echoes from that inflationary period which should be theoretically detectable through the polarization, or orientation, of light in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Canada Goose Coats On Sale

A collaboration of scientists used an instrument known as the Background canada goose outlet online Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization (or BICEP2) to search for this polarization, and in 2014, they announced that maybe, just canada goose black friday sale maybe, they had detected it, proving the theory of cosmic inflation was correct.

Unfortunately, another team working with the space based Planck telescope posted evidence that the fluctuations they saw could be fully explained by intervening dust in the Milky Way.

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